Santiam Canyon


Douglas Fir

Douglas fir is the state tree of Oregon.

Western Hemlock

Identification: Needles are all very short, but have distinctly different sizes on the same twig. They are yellow-green on top, and have two white bands on their undersides. They tend to stick out the sides of the twigs, but also occur on top of the twig. Cones are egg-shaped and about 1 inch long (

Western Redcedar

Identification: Tiny, scale-like leaves that overlap like shingles and form flat sprays like a fern. Distinctive, small cones that remain on the tree long after their seeds are gone. Some are round, but others are not. Aromatic wood.(

Bigleaf Maple

Photo by Tony Perodeau

Identification: Leaves are simple, opposite and deciduous; palmately lobed and veined.  Fruit is a double samara that looks like a pair of airplane propellers.  Wood, especially burl wood, is highly valued (

Oregon Ash

Identification: Opposite, pinnately compound leaves.  Single-winged fruit (samara), shaped like a canoe.  Bark is crisscrossed with ridges and resembles a woven net (

 Red Alder

Identification: Alternate, egg-shaped leaves with serrated or doubly serrated marginsSmall woody cones about 1″ long.  Commonly found in moist areas next to water( 

Sword Fern

Photo by Jamidwyer taken on 01:44, 1 August 2006

Identification: Dark green fronds of this fern grow to 50-180 cm tall, in a tight clump spreading out radially from a round base. They are single-pinnate, with the pinnae alternating on the stalk. Each pinna is 1-15 cm long, with a small upward-pointing lobe at the base, and the edges are serrated with bristly tips.

The favored habitat of this fern is the understory of moist coniferous forests at low elevations. It grows best in a well-drained acidic soil of rich humus and small stones. Sword ferns are very tough, and can survive occasional dry periods, but do well only with consistent moisture, light sunlight, and prefer cool weather to overly warm (  One of the most abundant ferns in the western flora, Common Swordferns are also of great economic importance. Enormous quantities of leaves are gathered for backgrounds in funeral wreaths and other floral displays; the evergreen leaves keep well in cold storage and are exported to Europe. It is extensively used in landscaping, the trade being mainly in wild-collected plants (<;.) .



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